Notes of American History

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June 11, 1859 The Comstock Lode discovery is made public. One of the most important mining discoveries in American History, the Comstock Lode was the first major silver discovery in the United States and virtually ended the California Gold Rush. Discovered under what would become one of the most important gold camps in the west – Virginia City, on the eastern slope of Mt. Davidson, the mines would yield more than $500 million of silver & gold ore during the first decades. Gold was first discovered in the area in the spring of 1850 by Mormon emigrants on their way to the California Gold Rush. After arriving far too early to cross the Sierra Nevada range, they camped on the Carson River in the vicinity of present-day Dayton, to wait for the snow to melt. While they were waiting, some of the men began to prospect the area a discovered gold in Gold Canyon. Even though they found some gold, they crossed the mountains when passable, sure they would discover larger finds at the end of their route. Mining continued in the area, but a camp was not established until the winter and spring of 1852–53, at which time there were about 200 prospectors in the area. Though miners continued to work their way upstream, the amount of gold found at the time wouldn’t result in a huge rush for several years. More ore deposits were discovered in the fall of 1857 by brothers, Ethan Allen & Hosea Ballou Grosh, sons of a Pennsylvania minister & veterans of the California goldfields. However, before they could work or file the claim, both would die tragically in mining accidents. Also working in the area was a man named Henry Tompkins Paige Comstock, known familiarly as “Old Pancake.” He had befriended the Grosh brothers, & though they had not shared the location of their find with him, when Comstock heard of Allen’s death, in the spring of 1858, he took possession of their cabin went in search of their claim. He & several others laid claim to several sections of the Comstock Lode in 1859. A miner named James Finney, better known as “Old Virginny,” discovered the Gold Hill outcropping; “Big French John” Bishop, Aleck Henderson & Jack Yount, discovered a vein that would later become part of the Comstock Lode, but not the main one. These 4 men are often re-credited with the “rediscovery” of the original Grosh brothers’ find. In the spring of 1859, two miners named Peter O’Riley & Patrick McLaughlin, began to work the area around the head of Six-Mile Canyon. By June, they had hit “pay-dirt,” but when Henry Comstock learned of the find, he claimed the men were working on land he had already claimed for “grazing purposes”. Unhappy with his current claim on Gold Hill, Comstock threatened that he would take the claim, but the miners finally agreed to give him an interest in the gold find. Comstock’s and the others’ claims filed publicly on June 11, 1859 started the “Rush to Washoe,” & for the next 2 decades, it would be the dominating event in Nevada history. Having few resources to develop these claims & unsure of the size of the strikes, all of the original discoverers would soon sell out, without ever making the huge fortunes that would come later for men such as George Hearst, William Chapman Ralston, William Sharon, Alvinza Hayward, & several others. The Comstock Lode is notable not just as the 1st major discovery of silver ore in the US or for the immense fortunes it generated & the large role those fortunes had in the growth of Nevada & San Francisco, but also for the advances in mining technology that it spurred.
Gold Hill, Nevada Timothy H. O'Sullivan, 1867
Gold Hill, Nevada Timothy H. O’Sullivan, 1867

June 11, 1944 D-Day landing forces converge. 5 days after the D-Day landing, the five Allied landing groups, made up of some 330,000 troops, link up in Normandy to form a single solid front across northwestern France. On June 6, 1944, after a year of meticulous planning conducted in secrecy by a joint Anglo-American staff, the largest combined sea, air, & land military operation in history began on the French coast at Normandy. The Allied invasion force included 3 million men, 13,000 aircraft, 1,200 warships, 2,700 merchant ships & 2,500 landing craft. 15 minutes after midnight on June 6, the 1st of 23,000 U.S., British, & Canadian paratroopers & glider troops plunged into the darkness over Normandy. Just before dawn, Allied aircraft & ships bombed the French coast along the Baie de la Seine, & at daybreak the bombardment ended as 135,000 Allied troops stormed ashore at 5 landing sites. Despite the formidable German coastal defenses, beachheads were achieved at all 5 landing locations. At one site—Omaha Beach—German resistance was especially strong, & the Allied position was only secured after hours of bloody fighting by the Americans assigned to it. By the evening, some 150,000 American, British & Canadian troops were ashore, & the Allies held about 80 square miles. During the next 5 days, Allied forces in Normandy moved steadily forward in all sectors against fierce German resistance. On June 11, the 5 landing groups met up & Operation Overlord—the code name for the Allied invasion of northwestern Europe—proceeded as planned.
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June 12, 1876 Marcus Kellogg, a journalist traveling with Custer’s 7th Cavalry, files one of his last dispatches before being killed at the Battle of the Little Big Horn. A native of Ontario, Canada, Kellogg migrated with his family to New York in 1835. As a young man he mastered the art of the telegraph & went to work for the Pacific Telegraphy Company in Wisconsin. Sometime during the Civil War, he abandoned his career in telegraphy in favor of becoming a newspaperman &, in 1873, west to the frontier town of Bismarck in Dakota Territory where he became the asst. editor of the Bismarck Tribune. While returning from a trip to the East, Kellogg was on the same train as George Custer & his wife. Custer was on his way to Fort Abraham Lincoln, near Bismarck, where he was going to lead the 7th Cavalry in a planned assault on several bands of Indians who had refused to be confined to reservations. After an unusually heavy winter storm, the train became snowbound. Kellogg improvised a crude telegraph key, connected it to the wires running alongside the track, & sent a message ahead to the fort asking for help. Custer’s brother, Tom, arrived soon after with a sleigh to rescue them. Ever since his days as a Civil War hero, Custer had enjoyed being lionized in the nation’s newspapers. Now, as he prepared for what he hoped would be his greatest victory ever, Custer wanted to make sure his glorious deeds would be adequately covered in the press. Initially, Custer had planned to take his old friend Clement Lounsberry, who was Kellogg’s employer at the Tribune, with him into the field with the 7th Cavalry. At the last minute, Kellogg was picked to go instead-perhaps because Custer had been impressed by his resourcefulness with a telegraph key. When Custer led his soldiers out of Fort Abraham Lincoln and headed west for Montana on May 31, Kellogg rode with him. During the next few weeks, Kellogg filed 3 dispatches from the field to the Bismarck Tribune, which in turn passed the stories on to the New York Herald. Kellogg’s 1st dispatches, dated May 31 & June 12, recorded the progress of the expedition westward. His final report, dated June 21, came from the army’s camp along the Rosebud River in southern Montana, not far from the Little Big Horn River. “We leave the Rosebud tomorrow,” Kellogg wrote, “and by the time this reaches you we will have met & fought the red devils, with what result remains to be seen.” The results, of course, were disastrous. 4 days later, Sioux & Cheyenne warriors wiped out Custer & his men along the Little Big Horn River. Unfortunately, Kellogg did not live to tell the tale & died alongside Custer’s soldiers. On July 6, the Bismarck Tribune printed a special extra edition with a top headline reading: “Massacred: Gen. Custer & 261 Men the Victims.” Further down in the column, in substantially smaller type, a sub-headline reported: “The Bismarck Tribune’s Special Correspondent Slain.” The article went on to report, “The body of Kellogg alone remained unstripped of its clothing, and was not mutilated.” The reporter speculated that this might have been a result of the Indian’s “respect [for] this humble shover of the lead pencil.” (Doubtful, IMHO) The New York Herald later erected a monument to the fallen journalist over the supposed site of his grave on the Little Big Horn battlefield.
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June 12, 1963 In the driveway outside his home in Jackson, Mississippi, African American civil rights leader Medgar Evers is shot to death by white supremacist Byron De La Beckwith. During World War II, Evers volunteered for the U.S. Army and participated in the Normandy invasion. In 1952, he joined the NAACP. As a field worker for the NAACP, Evers traveled through his home state encouraging poor African Americans to register to vote & recruiting them into the civil rights movement. He was instrumental in getting witnesses & evidence for the Emmett Till murder case, which brought national attention to the plight of African Americans in the South. On June 12, 1963, Medgar Evers was killed. After a funeral in Jackson, he was buried with full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery. In 1964, the 1st trial of chief suspect Byron De La Beckwith ended with a deadlock by an all-white jury, sparking numerous protests. When a 2nd all-white jury also failed to reach a decision, De La Beckwith was set free. 3 decades later, the state of Mississippi reopened the case under pressure from civil rights leaders & Evers’ family. In February 1994, a racially mixed jury in Jackson found Beckwith guilty of murder. The unrepentant white supremacist, aged 73, was sentenced to life imprisonment. He died in prison in 2001.
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June 12, 1987 In one of his most famous Cold War speeches, President Ronald Reagan challenges Soviet Leader Mikhail Gorbachev to “tear down” the Berlin Wall, a symbol of the repressive Communist era in a divided Germany. In 1945, following Germany’s defeat in World War II, the nation’s capital, Berlin, was divided into 4 sections, with the Americans, British & French controlling the western region & the Soviets gaining power in the eastern region. In May 1949, the 3 western sections came together as the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany), with the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) being established in October of that same year. In 1952, the border between the 2 countries was closed & by the following year East Germans were prosecuted if they left their country without permission. In August 1961, the Berlin Wall was erected by the East German government to prevent its citizens from escaping to the West. Between 1949 & the wall’s inception, it’s estimated that over 2.5 million East Germans fled to the West in search of a less repressive life. With the wall as a backdrop, President Reagan declared to a West Berlin crowd in 1987, “There is one sign the Soviets can make that would be unmistakable, that would advance dramatically the cause of freedom & peace.” He then called upon his Soviet counterpart: “Secretary General Gorbachev, if you seek peace–if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union & Eastern Europe–if you seek liberalization: come here, to this gate. Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate. Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall.” Reagan then went on to ask Gorbachev to undertake serious arms reduction talks with the US. Most listeners at the time viewed Reagan’s speech as a dramatic appeal to Gorbachev to renew negotiations on nuclear arms reductions. It was also a reminder that despite the Soviet leader’s public statements about a new relationship with the West, the U.S. wanted to see action taken to lessen Cold War tensions. Happily for Berliners, though, the speech also foreshadowed events to come: 2 years later, on Nov. 9, 1989, joyful East & West Germans did break down the infamous barrier between East & West Berlin. Germany was officially reunited on Oct. 3, 1990.
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June 12, 1876 Marcus Kellogg, a journalist traveling with Custer’s 7th Cavalry, files one of his last dispatches before being killed at the Battle of the Little Big Horn. A native of Ontario, Canada, Kellogg migrated with his family to New York in 1835. As a young man he mastered the art of the telegraph & went to work for the Pacific Telegraphy Company in Wisconsin. Sometime during the Civil War, he abandoned his career in telegraphy in favor of becoming a newspaperman &, in 1873, west to the frontier town of Bismarck in Dakota Territory where he became the asst. editor of the Bismarck Tribune. While returning from a trip to the East, Kellogg was on the same train as George Custer & his wife. Custer was on his way to Fort Abraham Lincoln, near Bismarck, where he was going to lead the 7th Cavalry in a planned assault on several bands of Indians who had refused to be confined to reservations. After an unusually heavy winter storm, the train became snowbound. Kellogg improvised a crude telegraph key, connected it to the wires running alongside the track, & sent a message ahead to the fort asking for help. Custer’s brother, Tom, arrived soon after with a sleigh to rescue them. Ever since his days as a Civil War hero, Custer had enjoyed being lionized in the nation’s newspapers. Now, as he prepared for what he hoped would be his greatest victory ever, Custer wanted to make sure his glorious deeds would be adequately covered in the press. Initially, Custer had planned to take his old friend Clement Lounsberry, who was Kellogg’s employer at the Tribune, with him into the field with the 7th Cavalry. At the last minute, Kellogg was picked to go instead-perhaps because Custer had been impressed by his resourcefulness with a telegraph key. When Custer led his soldiers out of Fort Abraham Lincoln and headed west for Montana on May 31, Kellogg rode with him. During the next few weeks, Kellogg filed 3 dispatches from the field to the Bismarck Tribune, which in turn passed the stories on to the New York Herald. Kellogg’s 1st dispatches, dated May 31 & June 12, recorded the progress of the expedition westward. His final report, dated June 21, came from the army’s camp along the Rosebud River in southern Montana, not far from the Little Big Horn River. “We leave the Rosebud tomorrow,” Kellogg wrote, “and by the time this reaches you we will have met & fought the red devils, with what result remains to be seen.” The results, of course, were disastrous. 4 days later, Sioux & Cheyenne warriors wiped out Custer & his men along the Little Big Horn River. Unfortunately, Kellogg did not live to tell the tale & died alongside Custer’s soldiers. On July 6, the Bismarck Tribune printed a special extra edition with a top headline reading: “Massacred: Gen. Custer & 261 Men the Victims.” Further down in the column, in substantially smaller type, a sub-headline reported: “The Bismarck Tribune’s Special Correspondent Slain.” The article went on to report, “The body of Kellogg alone remained unstripped of its clothing, and was not mutilated.” The reporter speculated that this might have been a result of the Indian’s “respect [for] this humble shover of the lead pencil.” (Doubtful, IMHO) The New York Herald later erected a monument to the fallen journalist over the supposed site of his grave on the Little Big Horn battlefield.
View attachment 51582


June 12, 1963 In the driveway outside his home in Jackson, Mississippi, African American civil rights leader Medgar Evers is shot to death by white supremacist Byron De La Beckwith. During World War II, Evers volunteered for the U.S. Army and participated in the Normandy invasion. In 1952, he joined the NAACP. As a field worker for the NAACP, Evers traveled through his home state encouraging poor African Americans to register to vote & recruiting them into the civil rights movement. He was instrumental in getting witnesses & evidence for the Emmett Till murder case, which brought national attention to the plight of African Americans in the South. On June 12, 1963, Medgar Evers was killed. After a funeral in Jackson, he was buried with full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery. In 1964, the 1st trial of chief suspect Byron De La Beckwith ended with a deadlock by an all-white jury, sparking numerous protests. When a 2nd all-white jury also failed to reach a decision, De La Beckwith was set free. 3 decades later, the state of Mississippi reopened the case under pressure from civil rights leaders & Evers’ family. In February 1994, a racially mixed jury in Jackson found Beckwith guilty of murder. The unrepentant white supremacist, aged 73, was sentenced to life imprisonment. He died in prison in 2001.
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June 12, 1987 In one of his most famous Cold War speeches, President Ronald Reagan challenges Soviet Leader Mikhail Gorbachev to “tear down” the Berlin Wall, a symbol of the repressive Communist era in a divided Germany. In 1945, following Germany’s defeat in World War II, the nation’s capital, Berlin, was divided into 4 sections, with the Americans, British & French controlling the western region & the Soviets gaining power in the eastern region. In May 1949, the 3 western sections came together as the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany), with the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) being established in October of that same year. In 1952, the border between the 2 countries was closed & by the following year East Germans were prosecuted if they left their country without permission. In August 1961, the Berlin Wall was erected by the East German government to prevent its citizens from escaping to the West. Between 1949 & the wall’s inception, it’s estimated that over 2.5 million East Germans fled to the West in search of a less repressive life. With the wall as a backdrop, President Reagan declared to a West Berlin crowd in 1987, “There is one sign the Soviets can make that would be unmistakable, that would advance dramatically the cause of freedom & peace.” He then called upon his Soviet counterpart: “Secretary General Gorbachev, if you seek peace–if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union & Eastern Europe–if you seek liberalization: come here, to this gate. Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate. Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall.” Reagan then went on to ask Gorbachev to undertake serious arms reduction talks with the US. Most listeners at the time viewed Reagan’s speech as a dramatic appeal to Gorbachev to renew negotiations on nuclear arms reductions. It was also a reminder that despite the Soviet leader’s public statements about a new relationship with the West, the U.S. wanted to see action taken to lessen Cold War tensions. Happily for Berliners, though, the speech also foreshadowed events to come: 2 years later, on Nov. 9, 1989, joyful East & West Germans did break down the infamous barrier between East & West Berlin. Germany was officially reunited on Oct. 3, 1990.
View attachment 51583

View attachment 51586 View attachment 51585 View attachment 51584
This is the first time I've ever heard of Marcus Kellogg.
 

Grunk

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A sincere thank you for keeping this thread going. I seriously learn something daily.
Thanks for the kind words. I enjoy doing it and appreciate you guys indulging an old man's hobby. I learn a lot doing this as well. Often I start looking to corroborate something I planned to write on a given day and stumble across something much more interesting.
 
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June 13, 1777 A 19-yr-old French aristocrat, Marie-Joseph Paul Roch Yves Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, arrives in South Carolina with the intent to serve as General George Washington’s second-in-command. Silas Deane, during his service as the Continental Congress envoy to France, had, on Dec. 7, 1776, struck an agreement with Johann de Kalb & Lafayette to offer their military expertise to the American cause. However, Deane was replaced with Benjamin Franklin & Arthur Lee, who were unenthused by the proposal. Meanwhile, King Louis XVI feared angering Britain and prohibited Lafayette’s departure. The British ambassador to the French court at Versailles demanded the seizure of Lafayette’s ship, which resulted in Lafayette’s arrest. Lafayette, though, managed to escape, set sail & elude 2 British ships dispatched to recapture him. Following his safe arrival in South Carolina, Lafayette traveled to Philadelphia. Although Lafayette’s youth made Congress reluctant to promote him over more experienced colonial officers, the young Frenchman’s willingness to volunteer his services without pay won their respect & Lafayette a commission as major-general on July 31, 1777. Gen. George Washington came to Philadelphia to brief Congress on military affairs. Lafayette met him at a dinner on 5 August 1777; according to Leepson, "the two men bonded almost immediately." Washington was impressed by the young man's enthusiasm and was inclined to think well of a fellow Mason; Lafayette was simply in awe of the commanding general. General Washington took the Frenchman to view his military camp; when Washington expressed embarrassment at its state & that of the troops, Lafayette responded, "I am here to learn, not to teach." He became a member of Washington's staff, although confusion existed regarding his status. Congress regarded his commission as honorary, while he considered himself a full-fledged commander who would be given control of a division when Washington deemed him prepared. Washington told Lafayette that a division would not be possible as he was of foreign birth, but that he would be happy to hold him in confidence as "friend and father." Lafayette later named his son for Washington.
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June 13, 1967 President Lyndon Johnson nominates US Court of Appeals Judge Thurgood Marshall to fill the seat of retiring Supreme Court Associate Justice Tom C. Clark. On August 30, after a heated debate, the Senate confirmed Marshall’s nomination by a vote of 69 to 11. 2 days later, he was sworn in by Chief Justice Earl Warren, making him the first African American in history to sit on America’s highest court. During his 24 years on the high court, Associate Justice Marshall consistently challenged discrimination based on race or sex, opposed the death penalty, and supported the rights of criminal defendants. He also defended affirmative action and women’s right to abortion. He retired in 1991, & 2 years later passed away.
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June 13, 1966 The Supreme Court hands down its decision in Miranda v. Arizona, establishing the principle that all criminal suspects must be advised of their rights before interrogation. Now considered standard police procedure, “You have the right to remain silent. Anything you say can, and will, be used against you in court of law. You have the right to an attorney. If you cannot afford one, one will be appointed to you,” has been heard so many times in television shows & movies that it has become almost cliché. The roots of the Miranda decision go back to March 2, 1963, when an 18-year-old Phoenix woman told police that she had been abducted, driven to the desert & raped. Detectives questioning her story gave her a polygraph test, but the results were inconclusive. However, tracking the license plate number of a car that resembled that of her attacker’s brought police to Ernesto Miranda, who had a prior record as a peeping tom. Although the victim did not identify Miranda in a line-up, he was brought into police custody & interrogated. What happened next is disputed, but officers left the interrogation with a confession that Miranda later recanted, unaware that he didn’t have to say anything at all. The confession was extremely brief & differed in certain respects from the victim’s account of the crime. However, Miranda’s appointed defense attorney (who was paid a grand total of $100) didn’t call any witnesses at trial, & Miranda was convicted. While Miranda was in Arizona state prison, the ACLU took up his appeal, claiming that the confession was false & coerced. The Supreme Court overturned his conviction, but Miranda was retried & convicted in Oct. 1966 anyway. Remaining in prison until 1972, Ernesto Miranda was later stabbed to death in the men’s room of a bar after a poker game in January 1976. As a result of the case against Miranda, each & every person must now be informed of his or her rights when arrested.
 

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June 14, 1777 During the American Revolution, the Continental Congress adopts a resolution stating that “the flag of the United States be thirteen alternate stripes red and white” & that “the Union be thirteen stars, white in a blue field, representing a new Constellation.” The national flag, which became known as the “Stars and Stripes,” was based on the “Grand Union” flag, a banner carried by the Continental Army in 1776 that also consisted of 13 red & white stripes. According to legend, Philadelphia seamstress Betsy Ross designed the new canton for the Stars and Stripes, which consisted of a circle of 13 stars and a blue background, at the request of Gen. Washington. Historians have been unable to conclusively prove or disprove this legend. With the entrance of new states into the United States after independence, new stripes & stars were added to represent new additions to the Union. In 1818, however, Congress enacted a law stipulating that the 13 original stripes be restored & that only stars be added to represent new states. On June 14, 1877, the 1st official, widespread observance of the flag's birthday was held on the 100th anniversary of the adoption of the Stars & Stripes. As instructed by Congress, the U.S. flag was flown from all public buildings across the country. In the years after the first Flag Day, several states continued to observe the anniversary, & in 1949 Congress officially designated June 14 as Flag Day, a national day of observance.
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Today if Flag Day &, as @dial1911 pointed out, National Bourbon Day. I personally think it says great things about our nation that these 2 celebrations are on the same day.


June 14, 1846 Anticipating the outbreak of war with Mexico, American settlers in California rebel against the Mexican government and proclaim the short-lived California Republic. The political situation in California was tense in 1846.Though nominally controlled by Mexico, California was home to only a relatively small number of Mexican settlers. Former citizens of the United States made up the largest segment of the California population, and their numbers were quickly growing. Mexican leaders worried that many American settlers were not truly interested in becoming Mexican subjects & would soon push for annexation of California to the US. When rumors of an impending war between the U.S. and Mexico reached California, many Americans feared the Mexicans might make a preemptive attack to forestall rebellion. In the spring of 1846, American army officer & explorer John C. Fremont arrived at Sutter’s Fort (near modern-day Sacramento) with a small corps of soldiers. Whether or not Fremont had been specifically ordered to encourage an American rebellion is still debated. Officially, Fremont was in the area strictly for the purposes of making a scientific survey. Whatever his orders, he began to persuade a motley mix of American settlers & adventurers to form militias & prepare for a rebellion against Mexico. Emboldened by Fremont’s encouragement, on this day in 1846 a party of 33 Americans under the leadership of Ezekiel Merritt & William Ide invaded the largely defenseless Mexican outpost of Sonoma just north of San Francisco. Fremont & his soldiers did not participate, though he had given his tacit approval. Merritt & his men surrounded the home of the retired Mexican general, Mariano Vallejo, & informed him that he was a prisoner of war. Vallejo, who was actually a strong supporter of American annexation, was more puzzled than alarmed by the rebels. He invited Merritt & a few of the other men into his home to discuss the situation over brandy. After several hours, Ide went in & spoiled what had turned into pleasant chat by arresting Vallejo & his family. Having won a bloodless victory at Sonoma, Merritt & Ide then proceeded to declare California an independent republic. With a cotton sheet & some red paint, they constructed a makeshift flag with a crude drawing of a grizzly bear, a lone red star, & the words “California Republic” at the bottom. From then on, the independence movement was known as the Bear Flag Revolt. After the rebels won a few minor skirmishes with Mexican forces, Fremont officially took command of the “Bear Flaggers” & occupied the unguarded presidio of San Francisco on July 1. 6 days later, Fremont learned that American forces under Commodore John D. Sloat had taken Monterey without a fight & officially raised the American flag over California. Since the ultimate goal of the Bear Flaggers was to make California part of the US, they now saw little reason to preserve their “government.” 3 weeks after it had been proclaimed, the California Republic quietly faded away.
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June 14, 1922 President Warren G. Harding, while addressing a crowd at the dedication of a memorial site for the composer of the “Star Spangled Banner,” Francis Scott Key, becomes the 1st president to have his voice transmitted by radio.


June 14, 1951 US Census Bureau dedicates UNIVAC, the world’s 1st commercially produced & commercial purpose electronic digital computer. UNIVAC, which stood for Universal Automatic Computer, was developed by J. Presper Eckert & John Mauchly, makers of ENIAC, the 1st general-purpose electronic digital computer.

June 14, 1954 In 1954, at President Dwight D. Eisenhower’s urging, the Congress legislated that “under God” be added to the Pledge of Allegiance. President Eisenhower signed the bill into law on June 14, 1954.
 
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